Carrière Distalizer

The Carrière Distalizer is a fixed appliance which is attached to the upper molars and canines. It consists of an adhesive base for each of the teeth mentioned and a stiff frame that is fixed to the canine and connected to the first molar by a joint. By transmitting power through the joint, the upper […]

Case refinement

Case refinement is the production of a second or any number of additional series of aligners after the aim of treatment with the previous series has not been fully achieved. At Align Technology, the manufacturer of Invisalign®, at least one is included in the lower treatment levels, whereas in the higher levels unlimited case refinements […]


This is the abbreviation for a Cephalogram which is a side-view X-ray of the skull. Unfortunately, this is usually described as a ‘lateral tele-radiograph’ in German (FRS), which is not really understood on the international front. [See lateral tele-radiograph’ (FRS)]. The Ceph was hugely important in studying the growth of the face and the skull […]


Measuring the skull, jaws and teeth with a Ceph, a lateral skull X-ray or p.a. skull X-ray.  [See critical comment concerning the lateral tele-radiograph’ (FRS)].

Ceramic brackets

Brackets made of crystalline material which are either opaque tooth-colored or transparent. Ceramic brackets are more aesthetic than steel brackets, but due to the brittleness of the ceramic and the associated risk of breakage mechanically poorer.

Cervical Headgear

An outer arch anchored to the upper molars which puts pressure on the upper set of teeth while being anchored to a neck strap. The cervical headgear is, in principle, an effective appliance, but it is unpopular with young patients and they often do not wear it for as long as they should.

Chin Augmentation

This term describes a surgical procedure for the bony chin whereby the chin is lengthened, shortened, raised or lowered. Even sideways movement of the chin is possible. There are no particular risks associated with chin augmentation such as damage to the nerves or joints, but the healing process can have an impairing effect. This technique […]

Chlorhexidine digluconate

Chlorhexidine digluconate is a bacteriostatic agent. It prevents the proliferation of bacteria. Chlorhexidine digluconate is used in mouth rinses and can effectively support home-based dental care during difficult periods. Disadvantages are taste irritations and – with prolonged use – a discoloration of the teeth which is removable.


Cinchback is the English technical term for the bending of wires behind the rearmost brackets or tubes on the dental arch. The purpose of the cinchbacks is to prevent slipping of the wires, occasionally also to control the increase in arch length.


ClearAligner is an aligner product which is manufactured in the dental laboratories. In this way, a higher part of the added value remains with the orthodontists. Technically, ClearAligner is the most advanced product after the market leader Invisalign® and is suitable for medium size treatments.

Cleft lip and palate

The cleft lip and palate – longitudinal split of the upper lip, the upper jaw and the palate occurring approximately every 500th birth ranging from an indicated splitting of the lip to the complete split-up of the entire area. There are one-sided and two-sided forms. Nowadays, the children undergo oral surgery and orthodontic treatment and […]

Cleft palate

Longitudinal cleft of the palate which appears approximately at every 500th birth ranging from an indicated split of the suppository to the complete cleft of the entire palate. Today, the children are mainly completely rehabilitated by oral surgery with some orthodontic support.  


ClinCheck® is a special software of Align Technology, the manufacturer of Invisalign®. It is used for the planning and visualization of aligner treatments. Moreover, it is a well-engineered 3D software that provides the orthodontist with a wide range of tools.


This is an abbreviation for Craniomandibular Dysfunction which is usually an umbrella term for painful disorders of the chewing muscles or the temporomandibular (jaw) joints. This usually involves about 75% muscle pain and only about 25% pain in the jaw joints. Like most common neck, shoulder and back pain, CMD belongs to the category of […]


Bacteria of spherical shape


Tartar (dental calculus) under the gum line in the gingival pockets, mostly dark colored by inflammatory bleeding and very hard.


Coronal is a directional term for: in the direction of the tooth crown.


Corticotomy is a surgical procedure used to mill grooves in the jawbone. It can be performed either through the gum or with opening a flap in the gum. In the latter case the tissue is reattached after the corticotomy.  This procedure makes it possible to significantly speed up orthodontic treatment for a period of around […]


The crossbite describes a reverse overbite of the teeth. The upper dental arch is usually bigger and broader than the lower so that both the front and posterior teeth overlap the lower teeth in the bite. However, in the case of crossbite, the lower teeth actually overlap the upper teeth. A frontal crossbite can sometimes […]


This term refers to crowded teeth on a too small space. Crowding is a result of a space deficiency or a disharmony between the dental substance and the space in the jawbone.

Crozat Appliance

This is a removable brace which consists of soldered wire elements that was developed by G. Crozat around 1900. The wire parts are mainly positioned on the inside of the teeth, so that it is almost invisible while speaking. Since the Crozat-Appliance does not have any big plastic parts, it does not affect the speech […]

Curve of Spee

The curve of Spee is the compensatory curve of the dental arches in the sagittal plane.

Curve of Wilson

The curve of Wilson is the compensatory curve of the dental arches, sometimes also called the curve of Monson.

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