Abrasion

Abrasion Abrasion is the loss of tooth substance due to friction caused by hard food components.

Acceledent

Acceledent Acceledent is a product designed to accelerate orthodontic treatment. It is an electrically operated device for intraoral use which transfers the instrument’s vibrations directly onto the recipient’s teeth. Acceledent has been introduced to orthodontics with great marketing effort. However, several high quality scientific studies have not indicated any particular benefit deriving from Acceledent, so […]

Activator

Activator The Activator was the first “functional orthodontic” brace that has been internationally recognized. Before that there was already the “jumping-the-bite appliance” of Kingsley (1879) and the monobloc of Robin (1902), but without much influence. It was originally introduced in 1935 by Viggo Andresen. The Activator is a removable appliance that encloses both teeth quadrants […]

Active Plate

Active Plate The active plate is a removable brace for just one jaw that was first devised in the 1920’s and was later improved by A.M.Schwarz. It consists of a plastic body, wire fasteners and active components such as springs and screws. Active plates, like all other removable appliances, are only useful for a small […]

Active plate (Schwartz plate)

Active plate (Schwartz plate) In the ‘20s of the last century, A.M. Schwartz developed the later improved, removable appliance he called active plate. In his honour it is often called Schwartz plate in English language. It consists of a plastic body, holding wire elements and active elements such as springs and screws. Today the active […]

Active Plate (Single Brace)

Active Plate (Single Brace) First introduced by Charles Nord in 1929 and later improved by A.M. Schwarz, this is a removable brace for just one jaw. It consists of a plastic body, wire fasteners and active components such as springs and screws. Since this appliance inevitably impedes speaking, it is almost always only worn at […]

Agenesis

Agenesis This term refers to the failure of a tooth or several teeth to develop during embryonic growth and development due to the absence of primordial tissue. The German word for this finding is „Nichtanlage“.

Agenesis

Agenesis : Agenesis is the congenital absence of an organ or organ part. This term refers to the failure of a tooth or several teeth to develop during embryonic growth and development due to the absence of primordial tissue. The German word for this finding is „Nichtanlage“.The most commonly congenitally absent teeth are the upper […]

Aligner

Aligner Aligner : Ever since the Positioner first appeared in 1944, it has been possible to provide orthodontic treatment by using plastic, removable braces. Since then, both the Positioner, that resembles a sports mouth-protector, and the thinner, transparent Aligner have been continuously improved. The very first feasible treatment procedure using a thin, transparent aligner was […]

Alveolar process

Alveolar process The alveolar process is the part of the jaw that surrounds the tooth roots. When the teeth are lost, the alveolar processes recede and only the jawbone bases remain.

Alveolar socket

Alveolar socket The alveolar socket is the bony compartment of the tooth root.

Angle Classification

Angle Classification The Angle Classification was conceived by E. H. Angle, the founding father of orthodontics, for classifying orthodontic deviations after the first molars have appeared: Angle-Class I refers to a neutral occlusion (normal bite), Angle-Class II refers to a distal occlusion (back-bite) and Angle-Class III refers to a mesial occlusion in the lower molars […]

Angulation

Angulation The term angulation refers to the angular position of the dental crown or root, mostly in a mesiodistal direction.

Ankylosis

Ankylosis This refers to the growing together of the tooth root with the jaw bone. If this occurs during the growth phase, it results in the affected tooth not being able to keep up with the jaw growth and then seeming to slowly disappear into the jaw itself (infra-occlusion). Sometimes, children’s milk-teeth are affected, when […]

Antagonist

Antagonist A tooth is called antagonist which is opposite to another tooth and makes contact.

Apex

Apex In dentistry, the root tip is called apex.

Apical

Apical Apical is a directional term for: in the direction of the root tip.

Aplasia

Aplasia Aplasia is the congenital absence of an organ or organ part. In dentistry, this term refers to the natural non-development of teeth. See agenesis

ARS

ARS Abbreviation for Air Rotor Stripping. In American English a common name for interproximal enamel reduction with a high-speed angled handpiece.

Arthritis

Arthritis Arthritis refers to the inflammation of joints which is usually associated with pain and functional impairments.

Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy Arthroscopy is the examination of a joint with a slim optic device directly introduced under anesthesia. The arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint is an occasionally useful examination technique with reasonable risks. During arthroscopy the temporomandibular joint can be irrigated at the same time and any particles from the discus can be removed (lavage and […]

Arthrosis

Arthrosis Arthrosis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the disappearance of cartilage covering the healthy joint surfaces. In most cases, arthritis (joint inflammation) which leads to the breakdown of the cartilage is a precursor of arthrosis. In older people, a certain arthrotic remodeling of the temporomandibular joint is relatively normal and it can be […]

Articulator

Articulator The articulator is a hinged rack for assembling jaw models and simulating jaw function. It’s necessary for making dental prostheses in the orthodontic laboratory. At the height of Gnathology, this was regarded as essential for functional diagnosis but this device is usually superfluous for this process. Moreover, it’s particularly superfluous and involves additional costs […]

ASR

ASR In German the abbreviation ASR is used for interproximal enamel reduction, see there.

Attachment

Attachment Regarding the orthodontic treatment with aligners, attachments are used as small plastic buttons on the teeth which improve aligner retention.

Attrition

Attrition Attrition is the loss of tooth substance due to tooth-to-tooth friction, e.g. with teeth grinding or pressing.