Palate-related, towards the palate

Parafunctional activity or habit

The habitual and often impairing exercise of the lower jaw like grinding and pressing of teeth, chewing fingernails/pencils or sucking.

Pendulum Appliance

This is a fixed brace for the upper jaw and it is used to distalize (i.e. move backwards) the 1st molars. One of the reasons for undertaking this difficult movement of the teeth is to make room for all the remaining teeth or to correct a distal occlusion. After treating the distalized molars for about […]


Perikymatia are ridges in the enamel just visible with the bare eye. They develop when teeth grow in the jaw bone. They often disappear because of dental attrition, abrasion and erosion.


Inflammatory disease of the periodontium with recession of gingiva and degeneration of jaw bone.


Periodontosis is an obsolete term for periodontitis. The term is inaccurate, because it hints at a degenerative disease, whereas the wide spread periodontitis isn’t degenerative but inflammatory.


A thin layer which covers the bone (bone skin).


Dental plaque refers to the yellowish-white bacterial stain on tooth surfaces which builds up within a few hours. If plaque is not removed, the layer thickens, covers larger areas and the bacterial flora becomes more aggressive. The main goal of good oral hygiene is the regular removal of plaque with toothbrush and appropriate means for […]

Pont’s Index

This term refers to the relationship between the width of the four upper molars and the width of the teeth quadrants, as was first made public by the French orthodontist A. Pont in 1907. The values that Pont provided from data collected in the south of France were actually replaced in Germany by data produced […]


These are removable braces made from flexible material without any wire elements. Introduced by Kesling in 1944, they resemble a sports mouth guard and encompass both teeth quadrants simultaneously although they are sometimes also used for a single teeth quadrant. They were originally made from rubber, although today they are generally made of silicone. The […]

Posterior teeth

The premolars and molars with their occlusal surfaces which bear most of the chewing forces.


The fourth and fifth human tooth pairs are called premolars. The teeth have one or two root(s), mostly with two cusps. They bear the chewing forces as well as guiding function.


Prognathism refers to the protrusion of the maxilla.


The term protrusion offers several meanings, which can be used in different contexts. This is an orthodontic condition whereby the front teeth jut out, e.g. bi-maxillary protrusion (Crooked sticking-out front teeth in both dental arches) This term also refers to physically moving a tooth forwards, particularly a front tooth. This is actually a treatment procedure. […]