Face Mask

This is an extra-oral appliance that was developed by J. Delaire and H. Petit in France and is used for the treatment of mandibular protrusion (lower jaw overbite). See Delaire Mask


In dentistry this term refers to the local absence of the bony layer over a part of the tooth root in the form of a crater.


In dentistry this term refers to the deep grooves and indentations of the chewing surfaces of the posterior teeth. In the fissures, caries is easily formed in childhood and adolescence.

Fixed Brace

The fixed brace, also called Multi-bracket- or MB-Appliance consists of bonded brackets, occasionally cemented bands, as well as wires and other components. The MB-appliance is the ultimate orthodontic appliance and can be used to carry out most orthodontic treatment procedures within a short time span, causing minimum inconvenience to the patient and producing the best […]

Fixed retainer

Broadly speaking, a retainer is just a brace that is used to stabilise the teeth following orthodontic treatment. The name comes from the verb ‘to retain’ which means to grip. There are both fixed and removable braces. Fixed retainers are usually thin metal wires that are invisible from the outside. They are fixed to the […]


Abbreviation for functional orthodontics – see there


Fluorides are salts of the element fluorine and occur naturally in different concentrations in water. Because of their caries-inhibiting effect, fluorides are used in dentistry in toothpastes, dental varnishes, mouth rinses or they are available as tablets. The tablet form is no longer considered useful, the local application in the mouth, however, has remained one […]


See Functional mandibular advancer

Forsus Spring

The Forsus Spring is one of the numerous Herbst-clones that are based on the Herbst-Appliance. It is a forward-acting appliance that is used for the treatment of the retruded lower jaw. The advantage of the Forsus Spring as opposed to the classical Herbst-Appliance is that it can be clipped onto a fixed appliance (multi-bracket appliance). […]

Forward-Pressure Double Plate

The forward-acting double plate, abbreviated VDP, is one of the latest and probably most effective advancements on the numerous double plates. In principle, these are offset activators split into two parts for the upper jaw and two parts for the lower jaw. Just like the double-plate braces, they bring the lower jaw as far forward […]


Frenulae are fine and membranous structures composed of connective tissue which connect the buccal mucosa with the mucosa covering the jawbone. Sometimes they extend directly into the gingiva. Children often show strongly developed frenulae which are often extracted surgically. The extraction of frenulae should be dealt with cautiously, because mostly they don’t cause any harm […]

Function regulator according to Fränkel

The function regulator according to Fränkel is a so-called functional orthodontic appliance and is used for moving the bite where there is a retrusive occlusion (function regulator II) or protrusive occlusion (function regulator III) in the lower jaw. Fränkel I (lack of space) or Fränkel IV (open bite) weren’t used that much. Among the countless […]

Functional diagnostics

Functional diagnostics of the chewing system, which may include the meeting of the arches in statics and dynamics – the occlusion – the condition of the temporomandibular joints and chewing muscles and the analysis of the movements of the mandible. Before comprehensive dental treatment which may include orthodontic treatment, functional diagnostics is recommended.

Functional mandibular advancer

The functional mandibular advancer, abbreviated FMA, is based on the MARA device and is a fixed appliance for moving the bite where there is a retrusive occlusion in the lower jaw (distal occlusion, Angle-Class ll). Read more: MARA.

Functional orthodontics

An orthodontic treatment strategy published around 1935 by Andresen and Häupl with so-called functional orthodontic appliances such as the activator. The concept is to influence facial growth by altering muscle function, ultimately leading to a “biological” correction of tooth alignement. Functional orthodontics was received enthusiastically in National Socialist Germany, dogmatically championed and has dominated German […]

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